Relative Salt Tolerance of Herbaceous Crops

Maas (1990) (a)


- Grasses and Forage Crops -


Common Name Botanical Name (b) Threshold dS/m (c) Slope % per dS/m Rating (d)
Vetch, common Vicia angustifolia 3.0 11.0 MS
Rescuegrass Bromus unioloides -- -- MT*
Rhodesgrass Chloris Gayana -- -- MT
Rye (forage) Secale cereale -- -- MS*
Ryegrass, Italian Lolium italicum multiflorum -- -- MT*
Ryegrass, perennial L. perenne 5.6 7.6 MT
Saltgrass, desert Distichlis stricta -- -- T*
Sesbania Sesbania exaltata 2.3 7.0 MS
Sirato Macroptilium atropurpureum -- -- MS
Sphaerophysa Sphaerophysa salsula 2.2 7.0 MS
Sudangrass Sorghum sudanense 2.8 4.3 MT
Timothy Phleum pratense -- -- MS*
Trefoil, big Lotus uliginosus 2.3 19.0 MS
Wheat (forage) (i) Triticum aestivum 4.5 2.6 MT
Wheat, Durum (forage) T. turgidum 2.1 2.5 MT
Wheatgrass, standard crested Agropyron sibiricum 3.5 4.0 MT
Wheatgrass, fairway crested A. cristatum 7.5 6.9 T
Wheatgrass, intermediate A. intermedium -- -- MT*
Wheatgrass, slender A. trachycaulum -- -- MT
Wheatgrass, tall A. elongatum 7.5 4.2 T
Wheatgrass, western A. Smithii -- -- MT*
Wildrye, Altai Elymus angustus -- -- T
Wildrye, beardless E. triticoides 2.7 6.0 MT
Wildrye, Canadian E. canadensis -- -- MT*
Wildrye, Russian E. Junceus -- -- T
Trefoil, narrowleaf birdsfoot L. corniculatus tenuifolium 5.0 10.0 MT
Trefoil, broadleaf birdsfoot L. corniculatus arvenis -- -- MT
Panicgrass, blue Panicum antidotale -- -- MT*
Rape Brassica napus -- -- MT*
Alfalfa Medicago sativa 2.0 7.3 MS
Alkaligrass,Nuttall Puccinellia airoides -- -- T*
Alkali sacaton Sporobolus airoides -- -- T*
Barley (forage) (e) Hordeum vulgare 6.0 7.1 MT
Bentgrass Agrostis stolonifera palustris -- -- MS
Bermudagrass (j) Cynodon Dactylon 6.9 6.4 T
Bluestem, Angleton Dichanthium aristatum -- -- MS*
Brome,mountain Bromus marginatus -- -- MT*
Brome,smooth B.inermis -- -- MT
Buffelgrass Cenchrus ciliaris -- -- MS*
Burnet Poterium Sanguisorba -- -- MS*
Canarygrass,reed Phalaris arundinacea -- -- MT
Clover, alsike Trifolium hybridum 1.5 12.0 MS
Clover, Berseem T. alexandrinum 1.5 5.7 MS
Clover, Hubam Melilotus alba -- -- MT*
Clover, ladino Trifolium repens 1.5 12.0 MS
Clover, red T. pratense 1.5 12.0 MS
Clover, strawberry T. fragiferum 1.5 12.0 MS
Clover, sweet Melilotus -- -- MT*
Clover, white Dutch Trifolium repens -- -- MS*
Corn (forage) (f) Zea mays 1.8 7.4 MS
Cowpea (forage) Vigna unguiculata 2.5 11.0 MS
Dallisgrass Paspalum dilatatum -- -- MS*
Fescue, tall Festuca elatior 3.9 5.3 MT
Fescue, meadow F. pratensis -- -- MT*
Foxtail, meadow Alopecurus pratensis 1.5 9.6 MS
Grama, blue Bouteloua gracilis -- -- MS*
Hardinggrass Phalaris tuberosa 4.6 7.6 MT
Kallargrass Diplachne fusca -- -- T*
Lovegrass (k) Eragrostis sp. 2.0 8.4 MS
Milkvetch,Cicer Astragalus cicer -- -- MS*
Oatgrass, tall Arrhenatherum, Danthonia -- -- MS*
Oats (forage) Avena sativa -- MS*
Orchardgrass Dactylis glomerata 1.5 6.2 MS

Salinity Ratings codes

Salinity Ratings refer to the level of salt tolerance: M = moderate; T = tolerant; S = sensitive; MS = moderately sensitive; MT = moderately tolerant

Notes:

(a) These data serve only a guideline to relative tolerances among crops. Absolute tolerances vary, depending upon climate, soil conditions, and cultural practices.
(b) Botanical and common names follow the convention of Hortus Third (Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Staff, 1976) where possible.
(c) In gypsiferous soils, plants will tolerate ECe about 2 dS/m higher than indicated.
(d) Ratings with a * are estimates.
(e) Less tolerant during seedling stage, ECe at this stage should not exceed 4 or 5 dS/m.
(f) Grain and forage yields of DeKalb XL-75 grown on an organic muck soil decreased about 26% per dS/m above a threshold of 1.9 dS/m.
(g) Paddy rice is grown under flooded conditions, thus electrical conductivity of the soil water refers to the plants while submerged. Less tolerant during seedling stage.
(h) Sensitive during germination and emergence, ECe should not exceed 3 dS/m.
(i) Data from one cultivar, "Probred".
(j) Average of serveral varieties. Suwannee and Coastal are about 20% more tolerant, and common and Greenfield are about 20% less tolerant than the average.
(k) Average for Boer, Wilman, Sand, and Weeping cultivars. Lehmann seems about 50% more tolerant.
(l) Broadleaf birdsfoot trefoil seems less tolerant than narrowleaf.
(m) Sesame cultivars, Sesaco 7 and 8, may be more tolerant than indicated by the S rating.